Investment, Pricing, Taxation
2 June 2020
24 February 2020
- Let government plan transport services, but at a decentralised level.
- Consider corporatising publicly operated transport services.
- Pay close attention to system design where competition in public transport provision is introduced.
- Pay attention to service quality as well as costs to achieve a sustainable public transport system.
- Take the broader urban context into account in designing and adopting public transport reforms.
16 September 2019
- Re-orient and harmonise maritime subsidy policies.
- Clarify objectives of maritime subsidies.
- Make maritime subsidies more conditional on positive impacts.
- Design maritime subsidies in ways that avoid market distortions.
- Improve transparency around maritime subsidies.
15 March 2019
- Improve the collection and dissemination of disaggregated data on the level and characteristics of private investments in transport infrastructure.
28 January 2019
- Distinguish between infrastructure and the operations that take place on it.
- To pursue private investment in infrastructure, choose between competition for the contract or the regulated model.
- Differentiate between attracting private investors in existing assets (privatisation) and in new infrastructure PPPs.
8 November 2018
- Favour the use of confidential contracts.
- Consider the use of arbitration.
- Reinforce legal capacity.
- Develop financial accounting and reporting requirements.
- Consider adapting the standard North American financial reporting form for Mexico.
- Develop a standard waybill.
- Develop a waybill sample data collection and analysis system.
- Determine the structure of the waybill sample.
- Choose a contractor to process waybills.
- Establish a network modelling process to generate traffic flow analyses.
2 November 2018
- Adopt a presumption toward repeal of shipping-specific block exemptions from competition law.
- Improve project appraisal for port and hinterland infrastructure and adopt common principles for port pricing.
- Establish more coherent ports policies to clarify roles and reduce risk of creating over-capacity.
10 October 2018
- Make demand management and congestion reduction the primary objective of road pricing.
- Differentiate road pricing by location and time.
- Combine road pricing and public transport planning to improve efficiency.
- Examine the combined effects of scheme design and mitigation to understand distributional impacts.
- Consider the use of discounts and exemptions carefully.
- Develop road pricing as part of an intervention package to achieve better utilisation of urban space.
- Reconcile economic, practical and political aspects in the design of road pricing schemes.
- Differentiate charges and consider adopting a rules-based pricing approach.
1 August 2018
21 June 2018
- Pursue private investment in infrastructure on the merits of improved efficiency.
- Invest more into upfront preparation of projects to reduce inefficient risk pricing by suppliers.
- Undertake a comprehensive analysis of how to assist suppliers.
- The pursuit of certainty in delivery should be balanced against cost.
- Stimulate innovation through early contractor involvement or alliancing, not public-private partnerships.
- Avoid transferring demand risk to public-private partnerships if service levels do not strongly impact demand.
- Bundle and cross-fund public-private partnerships to reduce demand risk.
- Adopt the regulatory asset base model where competition is absent or demand not strongly endogenous.
- Introduce a transparent public accounting standard to maximise the value for money of private investment.
- Foster competitive markets to achieve cost-effective infrastructure.
- Pursue data collection on how contract design affects project outcomes.
- Support the development of an evidence-supported procurement tool.
29 January 2018
- Ne renégocier les PPP que dans des cas exceptionnels.
- Faire appel à un arbitre indépendant pour établir si le résultat d’un PPP cadre avec ce que les parties auraient négocié si elles avaient prévu le changement intervenu.
- Envisager de charger une instance indépendante de statuer sur le bien-fondé de la renégociation d’un PPP.
- Inclure la réputation et la compétence avérée parmi les critères d’attribution des contrats de PPP.
- Comparer les avantages et inconvénients des PPP avec ceux des autres formes de participation des capitaux privés.
27 November 2017
- Planifier d’emblée la collecte des données nécessaires à l’évaluation.
- Procéder à un exercice de vérification en cours d’exécution.
- Confier l’exercice de vérification à des entités indépendantes.
- Reconnaître la diversité des objectifs économiques des investissements dans les transports.
- Associer les partenaires locaux en démontrant l’efficacité du projet.
30 May 2017
- The process should start with an assessment of need for new infrastructure.
- Comparable assessments should be undertaken for a range of feasible options.
- Selection criteria need to examine all positive and negative impacts of airport capacity expansion.
- Assessments need to incorporate considerations of risk and uncertainty.
- The process needs to be clear, transparent, collaborative, and trade-offs need to be explicitly considered.
23 May 2017
- Develop tailor-made governance arrangements for ports.
- Allow decentralised port governance to create additional benefits for local communities.
- Coordinate public port investment, nationally and where possible at a supra-national level.
- Ensure that ports not only focus on profits, but also take local impacts into account.
23 March 2017
- Systemic risks can be reduced where projects form part of a broad and long-term strategic plan.
- Strategic infrastructure planning carries its own risks, including technology's influence on demand- and supply-side considerations.
- When it works well, strategic planning can set out a stable set of priorities for future investment with durable cross-party support.
- A successful infrastructure planning process balances a stable framework with maintaining flexibility.
- The planning process requires clear objectives, a degree of independence and an open, collaborative approach.
- The planning methodology needs to address risks and uncertainties, take into account binding policy constraints and include considerations of pricing the use of infrastructure.
- A top-down approach to infrastructure planning to complement traditional project by project assessment is essential to a strategic assessment of long-term economic infrastructure needs across sectors.
- Infrastructure planning across sectors can help identify the most important systemic risks early.
- Using analytical methods such as a scenario-based approach to analysis can be helpful in future-proofing infrastructure plans.
- It is important to consider how demand for scarce infrastructure can be managed. Debt management need to be part of any strategic investment plan.
- A top-down approach could foster the development of an analytical framework for investment decisions reflecting both demand and supply side considerations.
28 February 2017
- Data collection for evaluation needs to be planned for from the outset.
- Audit transport projects throughout the project stages
- Use independent organisations to carry out audits of transport projects.
- Recognise the variety of economic goals targeted by transport investments.
- Involve local partners in providing evidence on performance.
23 February 2017
- Use renegotiation of PPPs only in exceptional cases.
- Use an independent jury to assess whether the outcome of a PPP is what parties might have been expected to negotiate had they foreseen a change that has occurred.
- Consider to task an independent body with determining when renegotiation of a PPP is legitimate.
- Include reputation and demonstrated competence in selection criteria for a PPP.
- Compare advantages and weaknesses of PPPs versus other forms of private capital.
20 January 2017
- Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) guidelines can be expanded to include reliability and some wider impacts.
- Further research into reliability benefits is needed to improve confidence in results.
- Wider economic impacts should be examined in cases where they are expected to be significant.
- Further research into the impacts and tools for capturing wider impacts is needed.
- Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) can play an important role in decision making, but need not dominate.
6 July 2016
- Use quantitative methods to analyse the key drivers of airport demand.
- Use expert guidance to help interpret the quantitative results.
- Quality-assure the analysis and counter the risks of optimism bias.
- Reflect the risks and uncertainties that arise in even the best forecasts.
- Make better use of demand forecasts in airport infrastructure planning.
1 December 2014
11 November 2014
24 September 2013
- A mix of financing models spreads risks.
- A dedicated budget for PPPs, set in relation to the rate at which future liabilities will be accumulated, can provide such a limit.
- Explicit consideration of alternative financing arrangements should be employed in determining whether to proceed with PPP projects.
- It is recommended that governments require PPP projects to pass tests of affordability and to clear the hurdle rates of return generally applied to publicly financed transport projects.
- The expected cost of PPP projects should take account of cost inflation resulting from the propensity for projects to be renegotiated.
- At the individual project level, risks should be assigned to the party best able to manage them, along with rights to make related decisions.
- Assigning demand risk is not straightforward and risk sharing arrangements are therefore common.
- Continuity of resources and expertise is essential for addressing strategic behaviour and optimism bias more generally.
- Regulatory agencies are well placed to ensure transparency and accountability by publishing reports on the criteria employed to make decisions and publishing contracts.